Cilia and flagella are ubiquitous in cell biology, acting either in a coordinated fashion to move surrounding fluid such as in lung airways, or as a propeller for cell locomotion such as on sperm or eukaryotic microorganisms, or as a sensory immotile but flexible antenna such as the primary cilia in essentially every cell in vertebrates and many vertebrate and invertebrate sense organs. The fluid dynamics induced by cilia and flagella, the mechanisms of coordination of motile cilia and flagella, and the fluid dynamic feedback to intra-ciliary and intra-flagellar transport and signaling, are essential to biology. The purpose of this workshop is to convene experts in biology, physics, mathematical modeling, and scientific computation to collectively assess progress and identify challenges to be undertaken in cilia- and flagella-induced fluid dynamics.
A list of outstanding challenges and computational strategies will be highlighted through lectures and subsequent discussions and open forums: (i) methods to compute and resolve the fluid-structure interaction of a cilium or flagellum, in either a viscous or viscoelastic fluid; (ii) stochastic (based on molecular motors) versus deterministic coarse-grained models of cilia and flagella beat cycles; (iii) the coordination mechanisms of cilia and flagella through the intervening fluid and/or the cells they emanate from; (iv) fluid mechanical sensing by the cilium or flagellum and the feedback response; (v) fundamental questions of optimization and efficiency (tuning of ciliary or flagellar motion or tuning of fluid properties to optimize motility or fluid transport; (vi) experimental and engineering approaches to support and challenge new modeling approaches. These challenges require assessment of current formulations and analysis of the governing equations for existing models, attention to accuracy, stiffness, time-stepping, adaptive mesh refinement, parallel implementation, and computing architectures.