M. Eisenberg, S. Robertson and J. Tien
Identifiability and estimation of multiple transmission pathways in cholera and waterborne disease.Journal of theoretical biologyVol. 324 (2013) pp. 84-102
AbstractCholera and many waterborne diseases exhibit multiple characteristic timescales or pathways of infection, which can be modeled as direct and indirect transmission. A major public health issue for waterborne diseases involves understanding the modes of transmission in order to improve control and prevention strategies. An important epidemiological question is: given data for an outbreak, can we determine the role and relative importance of direct vs. environmental/waterborne routes of transmission? We examine whether parameters for a differential equation model of waterborne disease transmission dynamics can be identified, both in the ideal setting of noise-free data (structural identifiability) and in the more realistic setting in the presence of noise (practical identifiability). We used a differential algebra approach together with several numerical approaches, with a particular emphasis on identifiability of the transmission rates. To examine these issues in a practical public health context, we apply the model to a recent cholera outbreak in Angola (2006). Our results show that the model parameters-including both water and person-to-person transmission routes-are globally structurally identifiable, although they become unidentifiable when the environmental transmission timescale is fast. Even for water dynamics within the identifiable range, when noisy data are considered, only a combination of the water transmission parameters can practically be estimated. This makes the waterborne transmission parameters difficult to estimate, leading to inaccurate estimates of important epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0). However, measurements of pathogen persistence time in environmental water sources or measurements of pathogen concentration in the water can improve model identifiability and allow for more accurate estimation of waterborne transmission pathway parameters as well as R0. Parameter estimates for the Angola outbreak suggest that both transmission pathways are needed to explain the observed cholera dynamics. These results highlight the importance of incorporating environmental data when examining waterborne disease.
H. Kang, M. Crawford, M. Fabbri, G. Nuovo, M. Garofalo and A. Friedman
A mathematical model for microRNA in lung cancer.PloS oneVol. 8 No. 1 (2013) pp. e53663
AbstractLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lack of early detection and limited options for targeted therapies are both contributing factors to the dismal statistics observed in lung cancer. Thus, advances in both of these areas are likely to lead to improved outcomes. MicroRNAs (miRs or miRNAs) represent a class of non-coding RNAs that have the capacity for gene regulation and may serve as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in lung cancer. Abnormal expression patterns for several miRNAs have been identified in lung cancers. Specifically, let-7 and miR-9 are deregulated in both lung cancers and other solid malignancies. In this paper, we construct a mathematical model that integrates let-7 and miR-9 expression into a signaling pathway to generate an in silico model for the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Simulations of the model demonstrate that EGFR and Ras mutations in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), which lead to the process of EMT, result in miR-9 upregulation and let-7 suppression, and this process is somewhat robust against random input into miR-9 and more strongly robust against random input into let-7. We elected to validate our model in vitro by testing the effects of EGFR inhibition on downstream MYC, miR-9 and let-7a expression. Interestingly, in an EGFR mutated lung cancer cell line, treatment with an EGFR inhibitor (Gefitinib) resulted in a concentration specific reduction in c-MYC and miR-9 expression while not changing let-7a expression. Our mathematical model explains the signaling link among EGFR, MYC, and miR-9, but not let-7. However, very little is presently known about factors that regulate let-7. It is quite possible that when such regulating factors become known and integrated into our model, they will further support our mathematical model.
C. Diekman, C. Wilson and P. Thomas
Spontaneous autoresuscitation in a model of respiratory control.Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. ConferenceVol. 2012 (2012) pp. 6669-72
AbstractWe introduce a closed-loop model of respiratory control incorporating a conductance-based central pattern generator (CPG), low-pass filtering of CPG output by the respiratory musculature, gas exchange in the lung, metabolic oxygen demand, and chemosensation. The CPG incorporates Butera, Rinzel and Smith (BRS)'s (1999) conditional pacemaker model. BRS model cells can support quiescent, bursting, or beating activity depending on the level of excitatory drive; we identify these activity modes with apnea (cessation of breathing), eupnea (normal breathing), and tachypnea (excessively rapid breathing). We demonstrate the coexistence of two dynamically stable behaviors in the closed-loop model, corresponding respectively to eupnea and tachypnea. The latter state represents a novel failure mode within a respiratory control model. In addition, the closed-loop system exhibits a form of autoresuscitation: conductances intrinsic to the BRS model buffer the CPG against brief episodes of hypoxia, steering the system away from catastrophic collapse as can occur with tachypnea.
A. Lam and Y. Lou
Evolution of conditional dispersal: evolutionarily stable strategies in spatial models.Journal of mathematical biologyVol. 68 No. 4 (2014) pp. 851-77
AbstractWe consider a two-species competition model in which the species have the same population dynamics but different dispersal strategies. Both species disperse by a combination of random diffusion and advection along environmental gradients, with the same random dispersal rates but different advection coefficients. Regarding these advection coefficients as movement strategies of the species, we investigate their course of evolution. By applying invasion analysis we find that if the spatial environmental variation is less than a critical value, there is a unique evolutionarily singular strategy, which is also evolutionarily stable. If the spatial environmental variation exceeds the critical value, there can be three or more evolutionarily singular strategies, one of which is not evolutionarily stable. Our results suggest that the evolution of conditional dispersal of organisms depends upon the spatial heterogeneity of the environment in a subtle way.
W. Lo, M. Lee, M. Narayan, C. Chou and H. Park
Polarization of diploid daughter cells directed by spatial cues and GTP hydrolysis of Cdc42 budding yeast.PloS oneVol. 8 No. 2 (2013) pp. e56665
AbstractCell polarization occurs along a single axis that is generally determined by a spatial cue. Cells of the budding yeast exhibit a characteristic pattern of budding, which depends on cell-type-specific cortical markers, reflecting a genetic programming for the site of cell polarization. The Cdc42 GTPase plays a key role in cell polarization in various cell types. Although previous studies in budding yeast suggested positive feedback loops whereby Cdc42 becomes polarized, these mechanisms do not include spatial cues, neglecting the normal patterns of budding. Here we combine live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling to understand how diploid daughter cells establish polarity preferentially at the pole distal to the previous division site. Live-cell imaging shows that daughter cells of diploids exhibit dynamic polarization of Cdc42-GTP, which localizes to the bud tip until the M phase, to the division site at cytokinesis, and then to the distal pole in the next G1 phase. The strong bias toward distal budding of daughter cells requires the distal-pole tag Bud8 and Rga1, a GTPase activating protein for Cdc42, which inhibits budding at the cytokinesis site. Unexpectedly, we also find that over 50% of daughter cells lacking Rga1 exhibit persistent Cdc42-GTP polarization at the bud tip and the distal pole, revealing an additional role of Rga1 in spatiotemporal regulation of Cdc42 and thus in the pattern of polarized growth. Mathematical modeling indeed reveals robust Cdc42-GTP clustering at the distal pole in diploid daughter cells despite random perturbation of the landmark cues. Moreover, modeling predicts different dynamics of Cdc42-GTP polarization when the landmark level and the initial level of Cdc42-GTP at the division site are perturbed by noise added in the model.
K. Liao, X. Bai and A. Friedman
The role of CD200-CD200R in tumor immune evasion.Journal of theoretical biologyVol. 328 (2013) pp. 65-76
AbstractCD200 is a cell membrane protein that interacts with CD200 receptor (CD200R) of myeloid lineage cells. During tumor initiation and progression, CD200-positive tumor cells can interact with M1 and M2 macrophages through CD200-CD200R-compex, and downregulate IL-10 and IL-12 productions secreted primarily by M2 and M1 macrophages, respectively. In the tumor microenvironment, IL-10 inhibits the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), while IL-12 enhances CTL activation. In this paper, we used a system approach to determine the combined effect of CD200-CD200R interaction on tumor proliferation by developing a mathematical model. We demonstrate that blocking CD200 on tumor cells may have opposite effects on tumor proliferation depending on the "affinity" of the macrophages to form the CD200-CD200R-complex with tumor cells. Our results help understanding the complexities of tumor microenvironment.
C. Diekman, C. Fall, J. Lechleiter and D. Terman
Modeling the neuroprotective role of enhanced astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism during stroke.Biophysical journalVol. 104 No. 8 (2013) pp. 1752-63
AbstractA mathematical model that integrates the dynamics of cell membrane potential, ion homeostasis, cell volume, mitochondrial ATP production, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling, IP3 production, and GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor signaling was developed. Simulations with this model support recent experimental data showing a protective effect of stimulating an astrocytic GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor (P2Y1Rs) following cerebral ischemic stroke. The model was analyzed to better understand the mathematical behavior of the equations and to provide insights into the underlying biological data. This approach yielded explicit formulas determining how changes in IP3-mediated Ca(2+) release, under varying conditions of oxygen and the energy substrate pyruvate, affected mitochondrial ATP production, and was utilized to predict rate-limiting variables in P2Y1R-enhanced astrocyte protection after cerebral ischemic stroke.
C. Diekman, M. Golubitsky and Y. Wang
Derived patterns in binocular rivalry networks.Journal of mathematical neuroscienceVol. 3 No. 1 (2013) pp. 6
AbstractBinocular rivalry is the alternation in visual perception that can occur when the two eyes are presented with different images. Wilson proposed a class of neuronal network models that generalize rivalry to multiple competing patterns. The networks are assumed to have learned several patterns, and rivalry is identified with time periodic states that have periods of dominance of different patterns. Here, we show that these networks can also support patterns that were not learned, which we call derived. This is important because there is evidence for perception of derived patterns in the binocular rivalry experiments of Kovács, Papathomas, Yang, and Fehér. We construct modified Wilson networks for these experiments and use symmetry breaking to make predictions regarding states that a subject might perceive. Specifically, we modify the networks to include lateral coupling, which is inspired by the known structure of the primary visual cortex. The modified network models make expected the surprising outcomes observed in these experiments.
W. Lo, R. Arsenescu and A. Friedman
Mathematical model of the roles of T cells in inflammatory bowel disease.Bulletin of mathematical biologyVol. 75 No. 9 (2013) pp. 1417-33
AbstractGut mucosal homeostasis depends on complex interactions among the microbiota, the intestinal epithelium, and the gut associated immune system. A breakdown in some of these interactions may precipitate inflammation. Inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The initial stages of disease are marked by an abnormally high level of pro-inflammatory helper T cells, Th1. In later stages, Th2 helper cells may dominate while the Th1 response may dampen. The interaction among the T cells includes the regulatory T cells (Treg). The present paper develops a mathematical model by a system of differential equations with terms nonlocal in the space spanned by the concentrations of cytokines that represents the interaction among T cells through a cytokine signaling network. The model demonstrates how the abnormal levels of T cells observed in inflammatory bowel diseases can arise from abnormal regulation of Th1 and Th2 cells by Treg cells.
D. Koslicki and S. Foucart
Quikr: a method for rapid reconstruction of bacterial communities via compressive sensing.Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)Vol. 29 No. 17 (2013) pp. 2096-102
AbstractMany metagenomic studies compare hundreds to thousands of environmental and health-related samples by extracting and sequencing their 16S rRNA amplicons and measuring their similarity using beta-diversity metrics. However, one of the first steps--to classify the operational taxonomic units within the sample--can be a computationally time-consuming task because most methods rely on computing the taxonomic assignment of each individual read out of tens to hundreds of thousands of reads.
J. Chang, K. Brennan, D. He, H. Huang, P. Wilson and J. Wylie
A mathematical model of the metabolic and perfusion effects on cortical spreading depression.PloS oneVol. 8 No. 8 (2013) pp. e70469
AbstractCortical spreading depression (CSD) is a slow-moving ionic and metabolic disturbance that propagates in cortical brain tissue. In addition to massive cellular depolarizations, CSD also involves significant changes in perfusion and metabolism-aspects of CSD that had not been modeled and are important to traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, and migraine. In this study, we develop a mathematical model for CSD where we focus on modeling the features essential to understanding the implications of neurovascular coupling during CSD. In our model, the sodium-potassium-ATPase, mainly responsible for ionic homeostasis and active during CSD, operates at a rate that is dependent on the supply of oxygen. The supply of oxygen is determined by modeling blood flow through a lumped vascular tree with an effective local vessel radius that is controlled by the extracellular potassium concentration. We show that during CSD, the metabolic demands of the cortex exceed the physiological limits placed on oxygen delivery, regardless of vascular constriction or dilation. However, vasoconstriction and vasodilation play important roles in the propagation of CSD and its recovery. Our model replicates the qualitative and quantitative behavior of CSD--vasoconstriction, oxygen depletion, extracellular potassium elevation, prolonged depolarization--found in experimental studies. We predict faster, longer duration CSD in vivo than in vitro due to the contribution of the vasculature. Our results also help explain some of the variability of CSD between species and even within the same animal. These results have clinical and translational implications, as they allow for more precise in vitro, in vivo, and in silico exploration of a phenomenon broadly relevant to neurological disease.
M. Eisenberg, G. Kujbida, A. Tuite, D. Fisman and J. Tien
Examining rainfall and cholera dynamics in Haiti using statistical and dynamic modeling approaches.EpidemicsVol. 5 No. 4 (2013) pp. 197-207
AbstractHaiti has been in the midst of a cholera epidemic since October 2010. Rainfall is thought to be associated with cholera here, but this relationship has only begun to be quantitatively examined. In this paper, we quantitatively examine the link between rainfall and cholera in Haiti for several different settings (including urban, rural, and displaced person camps) and spatial scales, using a combination of statistical and dynamic models. Statistical analysis of the lagged relationship between rainfall and cholera incidence was conducted using case crossover analysis and distributed lag nonlinear models. Dynamic models consisted of compartmental differential equation models including direct (fast) and indirect (delayed) disease transmission, where indirect transmission was forced by empirical rainfall data. Data sources include cholera case and hospitalization time series from the Haitian Ministry of Public Health, the United Nations Water, Sanitation and Health Cluster, International Organization for Migration, and Hôpital Albert Schweitzer. Rainfall data was obtained from rain gauges from the U.S. Geological Survey and Haiti Regeneration Initiative, and remote sensing rainfall data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. A strong relationship between rainfall and cholera was found for all spatial scales and locations examined. Increased rainfall was significantly correlated with increased cholera incidence 4-7 days later. Forcing the dynamic models with rainfall data resulted in good fits to the cholera case data, and rainfall-based predictions from the dynamic models closely matched observed cholera cases. These models provide a tool for planning and managing the epidemic as it continues.
K. Liao and Y. Lou
The effect of time delay in a two-patch model with random dispersal.Bulletin of mathematical biologyVol. 76 No. 2 (2014) pp. 335-76
AbstractWe consider a two-patch model for a single species with dispersal and time delay. For some explicit range of dispersal rates, we show that there exists a critical value ?c for the time delay ? such that the unique positive equilibrium of the system is locally asymptotically stable for ? ?[0,?c) and unstable for ? > ?c .
W. Hao and A. Sommese
Completeness of solutions of Bethe's equations.Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physicsVol. 88 No. 5 (2013) pp. 052113
AbstractWe consider the Bethe equations for the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg quantum spin chain with periodic boundary conditions. We formulate a conjecture for the number of solutions with pairwise distinct roots of these equations, in terms of numbers of so-called singular (or exceptional) solutions. Using homotopy continuation methods, we find all such solutions of the Bethe equations for chains of length up to 14. The numbers of these solutions are in perfect agreement with the conjecture. We also discuss an indirect method of finding solutions of the Bethe equations by solving the Baxter T-Q equation. We briefly comment on implications for thermodynamical computations based on the string hypothesis.
L. Hu and D. Chen
High-order fractional partial differential equation transform for molecular surface construction.Molecular based mathematical biologyVol. 1 (2013)
AbstractFractional derivative or fractional calculus plays a significant role in theoretical modeling of scientific and engineering problems. However, only relatively low order fractional derivatives are used at present. In general, it is not obvious what role a high fractional derivative can play and how to make use of arbitrarily high-order fractional derivatives. This work introduces arbitrarily high-order fractional partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe fractional hyperdiffusions. The fractional PDEs are constructed via fractional variational principle. A fast fractional Fourier transform (FFFT) is proposed to numerically integrate the high-order fractional PDEs so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order evolution PDEs. The proposed high-order fractional PDEs are applied to the surface generation of proteins. We first validate the proposed method with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. The impact of high-order fractional derivatives to surface analysis is examined. We also construct fractional PDE transform based on arbitrarily high-order fractional PDEs. We demonstrate that the use of arbitrarily high-order derivatives gives rise to time-frequency localization, the control of the spectral distribution, and the regulation of the spatial resolution in the fractional PDE transform. Consequently, the fractional PDE transform enables the mode decomposition of images, signals, and surfaces. The effect of the propagation time on the quality of resulting molecular surfaces is also studied. Computational efficiency of the present surface generation method is compared with the MSMS approach in Cartesian representation. We further validate the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of macromolecular surfaces, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, surface electrostatic potential and solvation free energy. Extensive numerical experiments and comparison with an established surface model indicate that the proposed high-order fractional PDEs are robust, stable and efficient for biomolecular surface generation.
A. Lam and Y. Lou
Evolutionarily stable and convergent stable strategies in reaction-diffusion models for conditional dispersal.Bulletin of mathematical biologyVol. 76 No. 2 (2014) pp. 261-91
AbstractWe consider a mathematical model of two competing species for the evolution of conditional dispersal in a spatially varying, but temporally constant environment. Two species are different only in their dispersal strategies, which are a combination of random dispersal and biased movement upward along the resource gradient. In the absence of biased movement or advection, Hastings showed that the mutant can invade when rare if and only if it has smaller random dispersal rate than the resident. When there is a small amount of biased movement or advection, we show that there is a positive random dispersal rate that is both locally evolutionarily stable and convergent stable. Our analysis of the model suggests that a balanced combination of random and biased movement might be a better habitat selection strategy for populations.
W. Hao and A. Friedman
The LDL-HDL Profile Determines the Risk of Atherosclerosis: A Mathematical Model.PloS oneVol. 9 No. 3 (2014) pp. e90497
AbstractAtherosclerosis, the leading death in the United State, is a disease in which a plaque builds up inside the arteries. As the plaque continues to grow, the shear force of the blood flow through the decreasing cross section of the lumen increases. This force may eventually cause rupture of the plaque, resulting in the formation of thrombus, and possibly heart attack. It has long been recognized that the formation of a plaque relates to the cholesterol concentration in the blood. For example, individuals with LDL above 190 mg/dL and HDL below 40 mg/dL are at high risk, while individuals with LDL below 100 mg/dL and HDL above 50 mg/dL are at no risk. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model of the formation of a plaque, which includes the following key variables: LDL and HDL, free radicals and oxidized LDL, MMP and TIMP, cytockines: MCP-1, IFN-?, IL-12 and PDGF, and cells: macrophages, foam cells, T cells and smooth muscle cells. The model is given by a system of partial differential equations with in evolving plaque. Simulations of the model show how the combination of the concentrations of LDL and HDL in the blood determine whether a plaque will grow or disappear. More precisely, we create a map, showing the risk of plaque development for any pair of values (LDL,HDL).
K. Liao, X. Bai and A. Friedman
Mathematical modeling of interleukin-27 induction of anti-tumor T cells response.PloS oneVol. 9 No. 3 (2014) pp. e91844
AbstractInterleukin-12 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which promotes Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities, such as Interferon-[Formula: see text] secretion. For this reason Interleukin-12 could be a powerful therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. However, Interleukin-12 is also excessively toxic. Interleukin-27 is an immunoregulatory cytokine from the Interleukin-12 family, but it is not as toxic as Interleukin-12. In recent years, Interleukin-27 has been considered as a potential anti-tumor agent. Recent experiments in vitro and in vivo have shown that cancer cells transfected with IL-27 activate CD8+ T cells to promote the secretion of anti-tumor cytokines Interleukin-10, although, at the same time, IL-27 inhibits the secretion of Interferon-[Formula: see text] by CD8+ T cells. In the present paper we develop a mathematical model based on these experimental results. The model involves a dynamic network which includes tumor cells, CD8+ T cells and cytokines Interleukin-27, Interleukin-10 and Interferon-[Formula: see text]. Simulations of the model show how Interleukin-27 promotes CD8+ T cells to secrete Interleukin-10 to inhibit tumor growth. On the other hand Interleukin-27 inhibits the secretion of Interferon-[Formula: see text] by CD8+ T cells which somewhat diminishes the inhibition of tumor growth. Our numerical results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data. We use the model to design protocols of IL-27 injections for the treatment of cancer and find that, for some special types of cancer, with a fixed total amount of drug, within a certain range, continuous injection has better efficacy than intermittent injections in reducing the tumor load while the treatment is ongoing, although the decrease in tumor load is only temporary.
J. Chang and T. Chou
Iterative graph cuts for image segmentation with a nonlinear statistical shape prior.Journal of mathematical imaging and visionVol. 49 No. 1 (2014) pp. 87-97
AbstractShape-based regularization has proven to be a useful method for delineating objects within noisy images where one has prior knowledge of the shape of the targeted object. When a collection of possible shapes is available, the specification of a shape prior using kernel density estimation is a natural technique. Unfortunately, energy functionals arising from kernel density estimation are of a form that makes them impossible to directly minimize using efficient optimization algorithms such as graph cuts. Our main contribution is to show how one may recast the energy functional into a form that is minimizable iteratively and efficiently using graph cuts.
J. Newby and M. Schwemmer
Effects of moderate noise on a limit cycle oscillator: counterrotation and bistability.Physical review lettersVol. 112 No. 11 (2014) pp. 114101
AbstractThe effects of noise on the dynamics of nonlinear systems is known to lead to many counterintuitive behaviors. Using simple planar limit cycle oscillators, we show that the addition of moderate noise leads to qualitatively different dynamics. In particular, the system can appear bistable, rotate in the opposite direction of the deterministic limit cycle, or cease oscillating altogether. Utilizing standard techniques from stochastic calculus and recently developed stochastic phase reduction methods, we elucidate the mechanisms underlying the different dynamics and verify our analysis with the use of numerical simulations. Last, we show that similar bistable behavior is found when moderate noise is applied to the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, which is more commonly used in biological applications.
Behavioral refuges and predator-prey coexistenceJournal of Theoretical BiologyVol. 339 (2014) pp. 112-121
AbstractThe effects of a behavioral refuge caused either by the predator optimal foraging or prey adaptive antipredator behavior on the Gause predator-prey model are studied. It is shown that both of these mechanisms promote predator-prey coexistence either at an equilibrium, or along a limit cycle. Adaptive prey refuge use leads to hysteresis in prey antipredator behavior which allows predator-prey coexistence along a limit cycle. Similarly, optimal predator foraging leads to sigmoidal functional responses with a potential to stabilize predator-prey population dynamics at an equilibrium, or along a limit cycle.
F. Kloosterman, S. Layton, Z. Chen and M. Wilson
Bayesian decoding of unsorted spikes in the rat hippocampusJournal of NeurophysiologyVol. 111 No. 1 (2014) pp. 217-227
An overview of Bayesian methods for neural spike train analysisComputational Intelligence and Neuroscience (special issue on â€œModeling and Analysis of Neural Spike Trainsâ€?) (In Press)
Z. Chen, S. Gomperts, J. Yamamoto and M. Wilson
Neural representation of spatial topology in the rodent hippocampusNeural Computation (In Press)
S. Adams, C. Zhang, H. Zambrano and T. Conlisk
Antibody-antigen binding in a flow-through microfluidic device51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Conference (2013)