Videos by Workshop 2: Rapid Evolution and Sustainability
Optimal control of pests in ecosystems
Pest species can affect the sustainability of some natural resources. Optimal control theory can be used to choose management strategies in models in involving a resource population and a pest population. Illustrative examples on managing gypsy moth populations will be given; issues of spatial spread will be included....
Multiscale evolutionary dynamics: a measure-valued process perspective
Natural selection can act at multiple biological levels, often in opposing directions. This is particularly the case for pathogen evolution, which occurs both within the host it infects and via transmission between hosts, and for the evolution of cooperative behavior, where individually advantageous strategies are disadvantageous at the group level. In mathematica...
Algal Evolution in a Changing Ocean
Marine algae are critically important to the health and well-being of the World Ocean. Not only do they form the base of the marine food web, they are also central players in the biogeochemical cycles of the ocean and the atmosphere. These organisms are amazingly diverse, occurring in 4 kingdom-level phylogenetic groupings and having body sizes spanning 7 orders o...
Rapid evolution and species invasions
When a species is introduced into a novel habitat, it faces a set of selection pressures that may differ considerably from those in its native range. Simultaneously, the arrival of a new species is likely to perturb the resident community and to change the selection pressures acting on resident species. These novel, and potentially strong, selection pressures set ...
The overlooked evolutionary dimension of modern fisheries
The past few years have witnessed a growing awareness that fishing might induce evolutionary changes in exploited stocks. With fishing mortalities sometimes exceeding natural mortalities by as much as 400%, adaptive responses to the altered selective environment caused by fishing seem inevitable. Case studies suggest that fisheries-induced evolution can occur with...
Rapid Evolution of Multiple Species Increases Coexistence: Insights from Models and Model Systems
Niche theory tells us that in order for multiple species to coexist sustainably, they must evolve traits such that they diverge to use distinct niches. The neutral theory of biodiversity suggests that although similar species cannot coexist indefinitely, they can co-occur for hundreds to thousands of generations. Given that rapid evolution on ecological time scale...
Eco-evolutionary dynamics: linking models to live systems
I will present three examples of eco-evolutionary dynamics. The studies vary in the degree to which they utilize mathematical models, the degree of empiricism, and the degree to which models and empirical findings are linked. Study 1 is concerned with a relatively artificial laboratory predator-prey system. This is the first system, for which a complete feedback c...
Eco-evolutionary feedbacks, adaptive dynamics, and community responses to environmental change
Adaptive dynamics theory has been devised to account for feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. Doing so opens new dimensions to and raises new challenges about evolutionary rescue. Adaptive dynamics theory predicts that successive trait substitutions driven by eco-evolutionary feedbacks can gradually erode population size or growth rate, thus po...
Historical DNA reveals dynamic patterns of recent microevolution in overfished populations of Atlantic cod
Understanding whether natural populations are adapted to their local environments and how quickly they may evolve in face of altered conditions is important for predicting responses to global change and other anthropogenic impacts. Previously, it was expected that local adaptation would be absent or rare in marine fish such as Atlantic cod that presumably exhibits...
The challenge of understanding antibiotic resistance
Despite the fact that the speaker is NOT an expert in the area of antibiotic resistance, he takes this opportunity to draw the attention of the audience to the subject. The reason is that antibiotic resistance poses such a big threat for our society. The hope is that the formulation and analysis of mathematical models may play in the future a bigger role in reduci...